WestBred seed suppliers have access to new tools to determine seeding rate based on wheat seed product, seed size and density, geography, planting date, and production practices. Spring wheat is seeded at higher population compared to winter wheat. It becomes quickly apparent that each lot planted at 60 pounds per acre would give vastly different plant populations. Seeding rates can be reduced for products that tiller well and are planted timely in good soil conditions. Quantifying tillers is important for management practices. FieldView™ is a trademark of The Climate Corporation. Nebraska growers use seeding rates for winter wheat that vary from 30 to 180 lb per acre (320,000 to almost 3,000,000 seeds per acre). 110.7 I.lvo I Dressed (pounds), i (pounds). Please switch to a supported browser: Chrome, Edge, Firefox, Safari. Soft White Wheat is used in flat breads, cakes, biscuits, pastries, crackers, Asian-style noodles and snack foods. So a bushel of wheat is 51.9 pounds of dry grain. Data from 2013 to 2015 including 12 hard red spring wheat products planted across Minnesota and North Dakota demonstrates tillering can be predictive. Historically, wheat growers often calculated their seeding rate based on pounds of seed per acre; however, seed size varies and it's now recommended that growers calculate their seeding rate using seeds per acre to provide more accurate seeding results. If producers use test weight as a seed quality measurement, they should use a seed test weight above 57 lb per bushel. Scouting for tillers should begin when main stems have three full leaves. Yields are calculated as 60 pounds per bushel at 13.5% moisture. Weed competition can be reduced by using narrower row spacings. Although yield is only a partial gauge of performance, it reflects the available production technology across farms. …One 60-pound bushel of wheat provides about 42 pounds of white flour, 60 to 73 loaves of bread (depending on the size of the loaf and whether the bread is whole wheat), or 42 pounds of pasta. 350 20 5 216 103 Doien. Pounds 35 no 100 20 20 40 16 34 35 14 1 0 24 Live (poimds). Seeding rates should be increased by 1% for each day planting is delayed up to a maximum rate of 1.6 million seeds per acre. “Then, we come back with that much again about midspring, for a total of 100 to 120 pounds.” Too much N, especially in one shot, and the wheat is more prone to lodging and disease, he says. How many winter wheat seeds should be planted per acre? Climate FieldView™ services provide estimates or recommendations based on models. Discuss these factors with your WestBred brand representative to get greater insight on what needs to be purchased and planted in each field. Table 3 provides the pounds of seed needed per acre for 6- to 14-inch row spacings and seed sizes of 12,000 to 18,000 seeds per pound, based on 18 seeds per foot of row. Needham said the conventional method of seeding solely on the basis of pounds per acre is irrelevant. Large seed may have a lower protein percentage than small, shriveled seed, but because it is larger, it may have more total protein per seed. Purchasing certified seed can help ensure the wheat product is free of weed seed and certain diseases and offers the desired germination percentage. Another factor affecting seed quality is the protein content of the seed. Seeding Rate (lbs/acre) = ((desired stand in plants per acre)/ (1-expected stand loss))/ ((seeds per pound)X (% germinaton)) Also, higher yield potential requires higher seeding rates. Smaller, lighter seeds can cause over seeding and could lead to lodging, increased disease, and greater input costs. The key is to get an optimum plant population with uniform distribution for efficient use of available resources. Winter wheat seeded late because of weather or following harvest of another crop may require a 30-60% increase in seeding rate. Ask your wheat seed dealer about seed counts for the wheat product you purchase. Therefore, the yield for 1/4 acre is 1/4 of that, or 2660 pounds. Moses Lake, Washington, farmer Derek Friehe produced 206.70 bushels per acre in an irrigated field of Limagrain “Jet” variety winter wheat – earning the nation’s top wheat yield, as tabulated by the National Wheat Foundation in the 2020 National Wheat Yield Contest. With an average seed size of 15,000 seeds per pound or 900,000 seeds per bushel, a pound of average-sized seed with 80% germination and emergence has a yield potential of approximately 1.5 bushels per acre. Easy-to-remember approximate or ball-park conversions are often used in general discussion. For winter wheat, seeding rates should be increased if planting is delayed to … Table 2 shows the yield potential of winter wheat seeded on the recommended seeding date at 18 seeds per foot of row with 80% germination and emergence (stand establishment). An acre of 660 by 66 international feet. S per acre with the drill at planting. For dryland winter wheat in western Nebraska, row spacings of 10 to 14 inches are recommended. Consult your seed brand representative for more information on products best-adapted to your geography and the specific agronomic needs of your farm. This year’s 105-bushel wheat was achieved with no more than 105 pounds of actual nitrogen applied as the nitrogen source, with another 10 pounds of nitrogen in the starter fertilizer, Wert says. He said a well managed lot of … Seeding rate (pounds per acre) = [desired stand / (1 - expected stand loss)] / [(seeds per pound) x percent germination] Optimal stand The optimum stand of winter wheat is 900,000 to 1,000,000 plants per acre or 21 to 23 plants per square feet. Some parts of this site work best with JavaScript enabled. It also may delay maturity, increase weed competition, and fail to make use of the plant's full yield potential. Well, from kswheat.com: ‘One bushel of wheat will yield approximately 42 pounds of white flour. The number of winter wheat seeds in one pound varies depending on the variety and the condition under which it was produced. If planting is delayed beyond early October, the optimal rate is 150 pounds or 2-1/2 bushels per acre. For irrigation, and especially with late seeding dates, row spacings of 6 to 8 inches are preferred. This can affect weed growth, delay maturity, and create an over-reliance on tillering. Then, use one of the several items available to help calibrate the seeder. If the desired stand was around one million seeds per acre, then the first lot would fall far short and the second lot would be about correct. Seed cleaning and sizing is essential to remove straw, chaff, dirt, … Germination should be found on the seed tag. 1 lbm/ac ≈ 0.000 112 085 115 619 446 kg/m 2.: 1 Bushel per Acre: Seeding rates are more accurate and the likelihood of achieving the targeted plant stand is improved when the rate is calculated based on the seeds per pound for the specific seed lot being planted. A few varieties grown in Nebraska have small seed with a lower TKW, but their seed is still suitable for planting. Lodging increases chances for disease, complicates harvest, and negatively affects yield potential. Using rates that are too high may increase costs, result in increased lodging, and possibly reduce yields. For a grain yield of 7,500 pounds per acre, sorghum needs approximately 25 inches of water during the growing season. October-sown wheat will generally produce two to three good tillers per plant and will reach the 60 heads per square foot target when sown at 60 pounds per acre. Pay close attention to each characteristic in Table 2 as this may require specific modifications in your production practices to achieve the best yield and quality of grain. These do not guarantee results. of 2,250 pounds of forage DM/acre. Average wheat yield for the farms in 2013 to 2016 was 66.8 bushels per acre (4.49 metric tons per hectare). Seed cleaning and sizing is essential to remove straw, chaff, dirt, stones, weed seeds, and broken, diseased or small shriveled kernels. More information at http://www.climate.com/disclaimers. This later seeding date reduces tillering and requires higher seeding rates to compensate for the reduction. The nitrogen fertilizer recommendation in South Texas is 2 pounds of nitrogen for each 100 pounds per acre of grain yield. Communications Bldg.Lincoln, NE 68583-0918. On average, there are 22 seeds per head and 5 heads per plant, or 110 seeds per plant. can be flexed to reach the same yield with fewer plants. QuickRoots® is a registered trademark of Novozymes. So, for example, a field that normally yields 80 bushels per acre would need approximately 93 pounds of N; if 10 pounds were applied at planting, the remaining 83 pounds would be applied in the spring. Yield Units Realistic Yields/Acre Corn (grain) bushels 100-250 Corn (silage) wet tons 12-18 Cotton bales 1-3 Peanuts lbs 3,200 Rice bushels 144 -164 Sorghum (grain) bushels 80 - 140 Sorghum (silage) wet tons 12-18 Soybeans bushels 25-55 Sweet Potatoes cwt A150-160 Watermelons cwt 100-200 Wheat (grain) bushels 40-80 Pounds of actual N = (1.33 x yield potential) – 13. In addition to these agronomic reasons, calculating optimal seeding rates is important to farmers for economic reasons. As mentioned earlier, new crop wheat bids in eastern Arkansas currently range from $4.22 to $4.45. Generally, seed cleaning will add 1 to 2 lb to the seedlot's test weight by removing the small kernels. A 30 gram (1.05 ounce) TKW, which translates to 15,200 seeds per pound, is an appropriate minimum TKW for a seedlot. In this step, remember that a bushel of wheat is 60 pounds, but there are 8.1 pounds of moisture (a 60-pound bushel of wheat contains 13.5 percent moisture). Clearfield® is a registered trademark of BASF Corporation. Instead, seed weight is the critical factor. This browser is no longer supported. ©2020 Bayer Group. Actually, a high thousand kernel weight (TKW) is a better measurement of seed quality. Table 1 lists optimum seeding rates for Nebraska. It may be beneficial to increase seeding rates for products that tiller less, are planted later than the optimum, or are planted in rough seedbed conditions. Wheat has traditionally been planted by the pound. First, use the operator's manual to set the seeder. These fields only produced about 750 pounds of forage DM/acre by November and 73.8 1,960 a 5, 940 6,000 1,200 1,200 1,154 1,086 960 524 »784 840 60 ceoo 2,190 219 98.55 Dressed (pounds). The amount of protein in the seed, not the protein percentage, is very important to early seedling vigor. The expected stand loss can vary between 10 and 20 percent, depending on seedbed conditions. Environmental conditions, including weather and soil fertility, affect stress on stems and vegetative growth. Larger, denser seeds means fewer seeds planted. Pounit. This range can be as many as 10,000 to as much as 20,000 seeds per pound. Seed Cleaning and Germinability. Unit Descriptions; 1 Pound per Acre: Mass of pounds per area of an acre. Since wheat seed varies in seed size (seeds/lb) and germination rates, the following equation can be used to determine seeding rate in pounds per acre. One gardener in Vermont attests to having planted 30 pounds of winter wheat on one-eighth of an acre and harvesting 250 pounds of grain in July. Seed for planting should be above 85% germination. For more efficient applications, use 10 to 15 lb. Seeding Rate (lbs/acre) = ((desired stand in plants per acre)/(1-expected stand loss))/((seeds per pound)X(% germinaton)). Large seed tends to tiller more than small seeds; however, small dense kernels are better than large, light kernels. In the 2014 Nebraska Winter Wheat Variety Evaluation for 14 trials, winter wheat yields ranged from a low of 24 to a high of 127 bushels per acre. When weight is used for wheat seeding rates, a seed size difference of this magnitude can result in a 153% difference in seeding rate. Delay in planting reduces yield potential and tiller development. The highest production of wheat on an acre of land is about 50 bushels (57 last year in Kansas). Since wheat seed varies in seed size (seeds/lb) and germination rates, the following equation can be used to determine seeding rate in pounds per acre. Seeding rates are typically expressed as seeds per acre or pounds per acre. The broadcast application of 25 lb. Robert Klein Western Nebraska Crops Specialist, 105 Ag. The heights of wheat products can vary from short and medium-short to tall. Spring wheat is seeded at higher population compared to winter wheat. 122.4 Pounds. If we calculate the average yield for all of these crops we find it to be 10,642 pounds per one acre of land. Seed size ranged from a low of 9,000 seeds per pound to a high of 14,100 seeds per pound. To some extent, wheat is inherently capable of compensating for factors that influence yield. This is for winter wheat seeded at an optimum planting date. Compare these yields to that of small grains (wheat or cereal rye mixed with ryegrass) interseeded into warm­ season grass sod (black line) from mid­September to mid­October. 35,000 lbs per acre Worth $7,980/acre Storage Onions 65,000 lbs per acre Worth $5,206/acre Potatoes 61,000 lbs per acre Worth $4,090/acre 4,296 lbs per acre Worth $485/acre Fresh Sweet Corn 16,500 lbs per acre Worth $6,540/acre Hops 2,200 lbs per acre Worth $6,050/acre For example, see NebGuide G2044, Calibration of Sprayers (Also Seeders), specifically Problem 10 which illustrates how to calibrate a seeder. Conversely, a decreased seeding rate results in a decreased number of seeds per head and larger seeds. Weed management also depends on tiller scouting as some labels require tillers to have two to three leaves before herbicide application. Floyd E. Bolton, crop scientist at Oregon State University, says 18 seeds per foot of row seems to be the point of diminishing yield increases, no matter the row spacing from 6 to 18 inches. Grain test weight often is used as a measure of seed quality, but test weight is a bulk density or a weight-per-volume measurement, and small seed that packs well can have a high test weight. Here is some information and average numbers from a friend of mine who grows wheat to sell to folks who make their own flour. ConnectIN™, WestBred and Design® and WestBred® are trademarks of Bayer Group. The dry grain yield in bushels per acre is multiplied by 51.9 and then divided by 2,000 to obtain the number of dry tons of straw produced. Bushels. UNL web framework and quality assurance provided by the, Visit the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Apply to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Give to the University of Nebraska–Lincoln, Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources, Strengthening Nebraska's Agricultural Economy, Determining the Seeding Rate for Your Winter Wheat. If planting is delayed past the optimum time period, the initial stand should be increased by 1 percent for each day planting is delayed. The statistical information listed In the tables below represent a crop-by-crop average yield of 47 foods (in pounds per acre), according to two different sources. In the range of acceptable seeding rates, shorter wheat products with strong straw can be planted at higher seeding rates with less risk of lodging. So how much wheat is a bushel? Large, dense seeds are considered to be of better quality than low test weight seeds. Precise and approximate (in parentheses) metric conversions are in the next column. ($) Total Farm Value ($'000) 273 113 12 5 66 Calories per pound. With seeding rate determined, how can we be sure the seeder plants the desired amount? After seed germinability has been determined, the seeding rate can be determined. An international pound of 0.45359237 kilograms. There are several options. With a 25 percent share rent — assuming a net selling price of $4.40 per bushel can be obtained — a producer would need an average yield of 51 bushels per acre to cover variable costs and rent. “We recommend 30 to 50 pounds per acre of N with conventional tillage and 40 to 60 pounds with no-till,” says Lee. The number of heads per pure live seed planted decreases, with increased seeding rates. Figure 1 illustrates average wheat yield per hectare for each typical farm. 2017 Grains and Oilseeds; Crops Acres Seeded Acres Harvested Yield (bu/acre) Production ('000 bu) Farm Value per bu. UNL recommends that growers base wheat seeding rates on seeds per acre not pounds per acre because of wide variances in the number of seeds per pound. Winter wheat is capable of compensating among yield components, which often results in similar grain yields being produced across a fairly wide range of seeding rates. However, optimum seeding rate are required to optimize the plant population, which in turn is important for maximizing grain yield and quality and controlling weeds. With the good conditions for seed fill in 2014, there was less variation in seed size than in 2013 when the seed size in the variety test ranged from a low of 12,000 seeds per pound to a high of 23,000 seeds per pound, a 192% difference in seed size. Soft white winter wheat has a broad optimum seeding rate range and rates of about 120 pounds or 2 bushels per acre usually result in the highest grain and straw yields. WestBred seed suppliers running the ConnectIN Wheat Insight System can offer seed counts for each product along with Optimal Seeding Rate recommendations. Taking a germination test is essential to determine the seed viability. In top wheat producing states Kansas, North Dakota, and Montana, non irrigated wheat yields are typically 30-50 bushels per acre with there being 60 lbs in a bushel. 267 171 Dozen. Tall wheat products, fields with high yield potential, and over seeding can lead to plants susceptible to lodging. A review of seedling rates vs. yield potential is helpful. Consult your agronomist, commodities broker and other service professionals before making financial, risk management, and farming decisions. In general, southern locations had more stems per plant, and wheat planted in high-yielding locations had fewer stems per plant. The lower rates are most common in drier areas. Yield per acre. Wheat needs 60 heads to 70 heads per square foot at harvest for full yield potential. In the 2019 Nebraska Winter Wheat Variety Evaluation for 16 trials, winter wheat yields ranged from a low of 30 to a high of 123 bushels per acre. …A family of four could live about 2 years off the bread produced by one acre of wheat. In general, an initial stand of 30 to 32 plants/ft2, which is about 1.3 to 1.4 million plants/acre, maximizes yield potential. Commodity Planted All Purpose Acres Harvested Acres Yield Production Price per Unit Value of Production in Dollars; POTATOES: POTATOES: 310,000: 308,000: 425 CWT / ACRE Heads per plant, or tillering, is a trait affected by environmental conditions, including soil fertility, planting date, and agronomic practices such as seeding rate. Estimated nutrient requirements for grain sorghum based on stage of growth are presented in Table 4. To calculate bushels per acre the basic formula is: Bushels/acre = (Harvested dry matter lbs) ÷ Standard lbs/bushel ÷ plot area acres or Yield = “A” lbs ÷ “B” lbs/bushel ÷ “C” acres Seeding rates tailored to wheat products can help farmers maximize the return on their seed investment while helping mitigate risks associated with under or over seeding. The change can result in as much as a 200% difference in seeding rate. Leading U.S. states for wheat yield per harvested acre 2017-2019 U.S. wheat exports by major countries of destination 2018 Total U.S. rye plantings and harvestings 2000-2019 All rights reserved. With these varieties, producers should use the largest seed they can obtain. 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